• NAPL Fate and Transport in the Saturated and Unsaturated Zones Dependent on Three-phase Relative Permeability Model
  • Taehoon Kim1·Weon Shik Han1*·Hyunjeong Jeon1·Woojong Yang1·Won Woo Yoon1

  • 1Department of Earth System Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

  • 3상 거동 상대투수율 선정에 따른 불포화대 및 포화대 내 NAPL 거동 특성 연구
  • 김태훈1·한원식1*·전현정1·양우종1·윤원우1

  • 1연세대학교 지구시스템과학과

  • This article is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Differences in subsurface migration of LNAPL/DNAPL contaminants caused by a selection of 3-phase (aqueous, NAPL, and gas) relative permeability function (RPF) models in numerical modeling were investigated. Several types of RPF models developed from both experimental and theoretical backgrounds were introduced prior to conducting numerical modeling. Among the RPF models, two representative models (Stone I and Parker model) were employed to simulate subsurface LNAPLs/DNAPLs migration through numerical calculation. For each model, the spatiotemporal distribution of individual phases and the mole fractions of 6 NAPL components (4 LNAPL and 2 DNAPL components) were calculated through a multi-phase and multi-component numerical simulator. The simulation results indicated that both spilled LNAPLs and DNAPLs in the unsaturated zone migrated faster and reached the groundwater table sooner for Stone I model than Parker model while LNAPLs migrated faster on the groundwater table under Parker model. This results signified the crucial effect of 3-phase relative permeability on the prediction of NAPL contamination and suggested that RPF models should be carefully selected based on adequate verification processes for proper implementation of numerical models.

Keywords: NAPL transport, Numerical modeling, Three-phase relative permeability, Media characteristics

This Article

  • 2022; 27(S1): 75-91

    Published on Jul 31, 2022

  • 10.7857/JSGE.2022.27.S.075
  • Received on Jun 23, 2022
  • Revised on Jun 29, 2022
  • Accepted on Jul 18, 2022

Correspondence to

  • Weon Shik Han
  • 1Department of Earth System Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

  • E-mail: hanw@yonsei.ac.kr